1.2. Interface

1.2.1. Rationale

  • Python don't have interfaces

  • Cannot instantiate

  • Inheriting class must implement all methods

  • Only method declaration

  • Since Python 3.8: PEP 544 -- Protocols: Structural subtyping (static duck typing)

interface

Software entity with public methods and attribute declaration

implement

Class implements interface if has all public fields and methods from interface

1.2.2. Example

Interfaces:

from datetime import timedelta


class CacheInterface:
    timeout: timedelta

    def get(self, key: str) -> str:
        raise NotImplementedError

    def set(self, key: str, value: str) -> None:
        raise NotImplementedError

    def is_valid(self, key: str) -> bool:
        raise NotImplementedError

1.2.3. Use Cases

Interfaces:

from datetime import timedelta


class Cache:
    timeout: timedelta

    def get(self, key: str) -> str:
        raise NotImplementedError

    def set(self, key: str, value: str) -> None:
        raise NotImplementedError

    def is_valid(self, key: str) -> bool:
        raise NotImplementedError


class CacheDatabase(Cache):
    timeout: timedelta

    def is_valid(self, key: str) -> bool:
        ...

    def get(self, key: str) -> str:
        ...

    def set(self, key: str, value: str) -> None:
        ...


class CacheRAM(Cache):
    timeout: timedelta

    def is_valid(self, key: str) -> bool:
        ...

    def get(self, key: str) -> str:
        ...

    def set(self, key: str, value: str) -> None:
        ...


class CacheFilesystem(Cache):
    timeout: timedelta

    def is_valid(self, key: str) -> bool:
        ...

    def get(self, key: str) -> str:
        ...

    def set(self, key: str, value: str) -> None:
        ...


fs: Cache = CacheFilesystem()
fs.set('name', 'Jan Twardowski')
fs.is_valid('name')
fs.get('name')

ram: Cache = CacheRAM()
ram.set('name', 'Jan Twardowski')
ram.is_valid('name')
ram.get('name')

db: Cache = CacheDatabase()
db.set('name', 'Jan Twardowski')
db.is_valid('name')
db.get('name')

1.2.4. Assignments

Code 1.16. Solution
"""
* Assignment: OOP Interface Define
* Complexity: easy
* Lines of code: 13 lines
* Time: 8 min

English:
    1. Define interface `IrisInterface`
    2. Attributes: `sepal_length, sepal_width, petal_length, petal_width`
    3. Methods: `sum()`, `len()`, `mean()` in `IrisInterface`
    4. All methods and constructor must raise exception `NotImplementedError`
    5. Run doctests - all must succeed

Polish:
    1. Zdefiniuj interfejs `IrisInterface`
    2. Attributes: `sepal_length, sepal_width, petal_length, petal_width`
    3. Metody: `sum()`, `len()`, `mean()` w `IrisInterface`
    4. Wszystkie metody oraz konstruktor muszą podnosić wyjątek `NotImplementedError`
    5. Uruchom doctesty - wszystkie muszą się powieść

Tests:
    >>> import sys; sys.tracebacklimit = 0

    >>> assert hasattr(IrisInterface, 'mean')
    >>> assert hasattr(IrisInterface, 'sum')
    >>> assert hasattr(IrisInterface, 'len')

    >>> from inspect import isfunction
    >>> assert isfunction(IrisInterface.mean)
    >>> assert isfunction(IrisInterface.sum)
    >>> assert isfunction(IrisInterface.len)

    >>> IrisInterface.__annotations__  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
    {'sepal_length': <class 'float'>,
     'sepal_width': <class 'float'>,
     'petal_length': <class 'float'>,
     'petal_width': <class 'float'>}

    >>> iris = IrisInterface(5.8, 2.7, 5.1, 1.9)
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    NotImplementedError
"""


Code 1.17. Solution
"""
* Assignment: OOP Interface Implement
* Complexity: easy
* Lines of code: 12 lines
* Time: 8 min

English:
    1. Define class `Setosa` implementing `IrisInterface`
    2. Implement interface
    3. Run doctests - all must succeed

Polish:
    1. Stwórz klasę `Setosa` implementującą `IrisInterface`
    2. Zaimplementuj interfejs
    3. Uruchom doctesty - wszystkie muszą się powieść

Hints:
    * `self.__dict__.values()`
    * `mean = sum() / len()`

Tests:
    >>> import sys; sys.tracebacklimit = 0

    >>> assert issubclass(Setosa, IrisInterface)
    >>> assert hasattr(Setosa, 'mean')
    >>> assert hasattr(Setosa, 'sum')
    >>> assert hasattr(Setosa, 'len')

    >>> from inspect import isfunction
    >>> assert isfunction(Setosa.mean)
    >>> assert isfunction(Setosa.sum)
    >>> assert isfunction(Setosa.len)

    >>> Setosa.__annotations__  # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
    {'sepal_length': <class 'float'>,
     'sepal_width': <class 'float'>,
     'petal_length': <class 'float'>,
     'petal_width': <class 'float'>}

    >>> setosa = Setosa(5.1, 3.5, 1.4, 0.2)
    >>> setosa.len()
    4
    >>> setosa.sum()
    10.2
    >>> setosa.mean()
    2.55
"""



class IrisInterface:
    sepal_length: float
    sepal_width: float
    petal_length: float
    petal_width: float

    def __init__(self,
                 sepal_length: float,
                 sepal_width: float,
                 petal_length: float,
                 petal_width: float) -> None:
        raise NotImplementedError

    def mean(self) -> float:
        raise NotImplementedError

    def sum(self) -> float:
        raise NotImplementedError

    def len(self) -> int:
        raise NotImplementedError